How Sheep, Cows, and Goats Kill Tens of Thousands of Species

Book cover from “The Death of Grass” by John Christopher (Wikimedia Commons / GrahamHardy)
  • The Americas try severe quarantines to stop the virus from reaching them.
  • But as the virus spreads, anarchy and looting starts.
  • Governments plan to bomb major cities as a form of population control. 😶
  • And people frantically try to grow potatoes as a source of food.

Once we lose a species, we lose it forever.

It’s like how we lose time in life. We cannot get it back. But the clock is always ticking down. We’re currently losing species around 1000x faster than the natural rate (Source) 😱

Every day that goes by, we lose 12 species at the very least (Source). Image by makeagif.com / robbo83
  • What is threatening biodiversity the most? 😿
  • Which solutions try to fix that?
  • Why are the current solutions not enough?
  • What can we do next?

Why does losing species matter?

There are three big benefits that ecosystems with biodiverse species bring.

Biodiversity Helps us Earn Money 💰

Half of the world’s GDP ($44T USD) is highly or moderately dependent on nature’s services. (pg. 103)

Does that sound too big? Here are some examples to show why biodiversity has such a large impact:

  • 70% of cancer drugs are inspired by nature. (Source) 💉
  • Fish consumption provides 3.3 billion people with at least 20% of their protein. And fisheries employ 59.5 million people. (pg. 70)
The dense roots of mangroves block storm waves. (Source) Image by Wikimedia Commons / Pernal8

Biodiversity Maintains OUR Habitat (Not Just Other Animals’)

In ecology language, ‘biodiversity provides ecosystem services.’

Without biodiversity keeping the environment livable, humans would die (period). 💀

For more concrete examples, here are how a few species help us:

These shiny diatoms are not an illustration. This is a real microscope image. (California Academy of Sciences)
  • Foming and protecting soil. Ex: In a single gram of soil, there are thousands of species of bacteria. (Source) Scientists have no clue what 99.99% of the species in soil do. (pg. 34) Yet, we need some soil quality to grow food, build homes, build roads, and more!
  • Regulating natural disasters. Ex: 200M people rely on coral reefs to protect them from storm surges (pg. 70) Multiple island nations are literally sinking into the ocean without species to protect them 😱

The More Species, the More Innovation

Specifically, the novel innovations are called ‘biomimicry’: reusing nature’s innovations for our purposes.

This is Penicillium glandicola. It makes Roquefortine C, a bacteria-fighting toxin. (Wikimedia Commons / Raeky)
  • Moths have tiny spikes (200–300 nm long) on their eyes. These act like tiny ‘guide rails’ that trap light rays. So light doesn’t reflect off of moths’ eyes. Now, NASA is using spikes like moths on a space telescope! 😮 It stops light from bouncing off the telescope so it can be detected. (Source)
These spikes on the telescope are designed to mimic those on a moth’s eye. (Source)

What threatens biodiversity the most?

Five main issues:

  1. Overexploitation
  2. Invasive species
  3. Pollution
  4. Climate change

But habitat loss is the biggest threat to 85% of threatened and endangered species. 😱

And when we look at population decreases for species (a slighly different metric), it’s the same picture:

Disclaimer: This is an average across 5 global regions. But the top 2 issues are the same everywhere. (pg. 21)
  • But to appease biologists yelling at me, ‘habitat loss’ isn’t the proper term and the general issue is ‘modifying habitats in any way’. 👀

So what causes habitat loss?

The majority is caused by land use for agriculture. Specifically, ‘grazing’ lands for cows, sheep, and goats. Here are some numbers:

(pg. 8)
  • 78% of that is tied to animal agriculture — 67% for grazing lands specifically (Source).
  • And basically all grazing lands are used for cows, sheep, and goats. (Source)

So why do cows, sheep, and goats need so much land?? 😕

Okay, they don’t need so much land. We can raise cows, sheep, and goats on factory farms. These are very horrendous conditions for them. But they use 10x less land (Source)

Meat Consumption Kickstarts Biodiversity Loss

As the most important example, 60–75% of new grazing land in Latin America is from cleared forests. (Source) This is the worst place for that! 😖 7 of the world’s ‘biodiversity hotspots’ are in Latin America.

Biodiversity hotspots are areas with >1500 unique plant species that have lost >70% of their population. (Source) (Image by Wikimedia Commons / ninjatacoshell)

RECAP: Growing demand for products made from cows, sheep, and goats → increased grazing lands → habitat loss → Biodiversity loss 😵

SO — to stop the whole chain, we have to reduce demand for products made from cows, sheep, and goats. Starting with food products.

Reducing meat/dairy demand is the PREREQUISITE to fixing biodiversity loss

P.S. There are MANY other reasons to reduce meat/dairy demand besides fixing land usage and biodiversity loss. See here for details. Anyways, it’s extra great to work on this problem 😊

Current solutions to reduce animal products?

The three R’s of reducing animal product s— replace, remove, reduce.

We can REPLACE Animal Products with Substitutes

The point is that the substitutes resemble meats without containing animal-based products. Ie. Same price, same taste, same nutrition, etc.

  1. Plant-based products combine many plant-based ingredients to mimic animal products. For meat, it starts with proteins from plants like soy, peas, or wheat. 🌾 Then, many other ingredients are added to make the plant protein have meat’s flavour, colour, texture, nutrition, etc.
Beyond Meat is the largest plant-based meat company (Open Food Facts / kiliweb)
I’ll talk about the exception (energy use) after. (Kaplan, Rubio, and Xiang, 2020)

We Can REMOVE Animal Products from Diets

Here, we don’t try to mimic animal products at all. We just change which dishes we eat. A commission of nutrition experts call one alternative The Planetary Health Diet. It could:

  • Stop the destruction of existing ecosystems
  • Reduce premature mortality by 10–11 million each year
  • Ensure all adequate nutrition
  • And still provide variety for different dishes! 😋
Data Source: pg. 10

We Can REDUCE Animal Product Purchases

This is the ‘indirect’, ‘sneaky’, or ‘path of least resistance’ approach — depending on who you ask 😁

  • Make plant-based products more ‘visible’ by adding them to the top of the menu, amidst regular meat in supermarkets, etc. (Source) Ex: In 60 Kroger stores, putting plant-based meats next to regular meat raised their sales 23%. (Source)
Plant-based meats next to regular meats in a Kroger store (Plant Based Foods Association)

Why aren’t these solutions enough?

There are four main barriers

  1. Awareness
  2. Preferences
  3. Geography

#1 CURRENTLY, Alternatives Cost Too Much 💸😢

Animal product alternatives grown from cells in the lab can cost tens of thousands of dollars per pound!

Yes, this will decrease in the future. But ‘cell-based’ products aren’t even near ready to make a dent in the issue in 2022. (Source) So I’ll conveniently stop talking about them now 😁

In fact, more consumers stop buying plant-based meats after price increases than for regular meats (Source)
  • The main cost in plant-based meats is processing raw inputs. Ex: they use 2–3x as much energy to produce as pig/chicken meat (Source) 😕
  • So reduce those processing costs (which many companies are working on) and this issue will go away. 😊

#2 CURRENTLY, Most Alternatives are Unheard Of

When it comes to ‘nudges’ to reduce people’s animal product purchases — the strategies are basically 100% restricted to academia.

Scientists have researched, but not used solutions. And companies/nonprofits have used, but not researched solutions.

You could call it a literal chicken or the egg problem… 😖

(Giphy.com / boomunderground)

#3 As You May Have Noticed, Humans Don’t Like Change 😕

For animal product consumers, taste and nutrition concerns are the biggest reasons for keeping on eating animal products. Ex: For US consumers, 72% of people prefer regular meat. (Source) And there are several reasons why:

Disclaimers: this is a survey from Canadians, not Americans (unlike above). 410 respondents could choose multiple answers. And stated answers may not show true intention. (Source)
  • Though some countries, like China, have publicly declared goals to reduce meat consumption by 50% by 2030. (Source)

#4 The Right Solutions in the Wrong Places?

No matter which level of this problem you look at, we’re focusing too much on developed countries.

Ex: I showed this map from earlier on the biodiversity hotspots in the world. Notice how South and Central America, Southeast Asia, and East Africa are the areas for most concern for biodiversity loss.

(Source)
Just a few countries dominate meat production in 2019. (Source)
(Kaplan, Rubio, and Xiang, 2020)

In 2019, almost all meat alternative startups were in the US or Europe.

And the same is true for research on conservation or animal product reduction strategies!

  • Ex: From 1970–2017, 57% of cost reports on invasive species came from North America. (Source) Elephant in the room much? 🐘
  • Ex: Only 14% of conservation cost-effectiveness research was from South America and Central Africa (home to 50% of the world’s species ). (pg. 9)

Which new solutions would be better?

Finally, I wish I had some perfect strategy to suggest to turn this problem around. I’ve tried brainstorming, talking to scientists, analyising, and more… But I just can’t find people in the field willing to go beyond their own expertise (ex: nonprofit work, research, etc)😕

  • Reduce lack of awareness/high processing of alternative meats
  • Combine behavioural nudges (researched and commercial).
  • Focus on solutions in East Africa, South and Central America, and Southeast Asia.
  • Increase cooperation between researchers, nonprofits, and companies in the field.

Key Takeaways 🔑

  1. Biodiversity loss is a ticking time bomb. A lost species is lost forever.
  2. Half of the world’s GDP depends highly/moderately on natural services.
  3. Without biodiversity keeping the environment livable, humans simply die.
  4. Growing demand for products made from cows, sheep, and goats → increased grazing lands → habitat loss → Biodiversity loss
  5. The three R’s of reducing animal products: replace, remove, reduce.
  6. High costs/low awareness in meat alternatives are being fixed.
  7. Scientists have researched, but not used solutions. And companies/nonprofits have used, but not researched solutions.
  8. >75% of solutions of any type focus on developed countries.

Thank You to the Experts Who Supported This 🙏

I’m very grateful for the help in understanding this problem!

  • Brian Kateman at the Reducetarian Foundation. I appreciate your reality-check on what’s important to nonprofits working in the field.
  • Dr. Kenneth Feeley at the University of Miami. I very much admire your ability to figure out the links between biodiversity loss and meat consumption 7 years before me, without all the new data available! 😵
  • Dr. Jo Anderson and Dr. Andrea Polanco from Faunalytics. I appreciate your time in listening to my ideas and your feedback on how to communicate them more clearly!
  • Amy Huang from the Good Food Institute. Thank you for your feedback on supply-side vs. demand-side priorities. And for sharing more about what it took to get dozens of alternative protein companies to cooperate. 🙏
  • Dr. Machiel Reinders at the Wageningen University. I appreciate your on-the-ground insights from working with restaurants. I really admire your ability to increase academic-commercial cooperation in the field! 😮

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Madhav Malhotra

Cofounder at The Plastic Shift. Learning how to create a sustainable planet. Linkedin: linkedin.com/in/madhav-malhotra/